CLIPPERS AND CLAMPERS IN ELECTRONICS PDF

July 20, 2020 0 Comments

In electronics, a clipper is a circuit designed to prevent the output from exceeding a . A clamper circuit is not a clipper, but the simple diode version has a similar topology to a clipper with the exception that the resistor is replaced with a. Complete tutorial about different types and applications of clipper circuits in series and parallel; positive and negative clamper circuits, etc. A clipper circuit chops of output voltage beyond the requirement while clamper clamps the output to a definite voltage level, actually adds/subtracts a DC level.

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Electronic devices are very sensitive to voltage. If a large amplitude electrronics is applied, it may permanently destroy the device. So, it is essential to protect the electronics devices.

The protection of the electronic devices can be achieved by using the clipper circuits. A clipper is a device that removes either the positive half top half or negative half bottom halfor both positive and negative halves of the input AC signal. In other words, a clipper is a device that limits the positive amplitude or negative amplitude or both positive and negative amplitudes of the input AC signal.

In some cases, a clipper removes a small portion of the positive half cycle or negative half cycle or both positive and negative half cycles.

In the below circuit diagram, the positive half cycles are removed by using the series positive clipper. The clipper circuit does not contain energy storage elements elecctronics as capacitor but contains both linear and no-linear elements.

The linear elements used in the cilppers include resistors and the non-linear elements used in the clippers include diodes or transistors. One of the basic clipping device is the half wave rectifier. A half wave rectifier removes either the positive half cycle or negative half cycle of the adn AC signal and allows the remaining half cycle of the input AC signal. Thus, a half wave rectifier acts as a clipper circuit. The half wave rectifier clipper circuit is made up of one diode and a resistor.

Depending on the orientation of the diode, either the positive or the negative half cycle is removed. The resistor is mainly used to limit the current flowing through the diode when it is forward biased. The clipping removal of the input AC signal is done in such a way that the remaining part of the input AC signal will not be distorted. Clippers are often referred to as voltage limiters, current limiters, slicers, or amplitude selectors.

Clipper circuits are extensively used in digital computers, radars, television receivers, radio receivers and other electronic systems for removing unwanted portion of the input AC signal. The clipper circuits are generally categorized into three types: In series clippers, the diode is connected in series with the output load resistance. In shunt clippers, the diode is connected in parallel with the output load resistance. The series clippers are again classified into elecronics types: The shunt parallel clippers are again classified into four types: The various types of clippers are as follows: In series positive clipper, the positive half cycles of the input AC signal is removed.

If the diode is arranged in such a way that the arrowhead of the diode points towards the input and the diode is in series with the output load resistance, then the clipper is said to be a series positive clipper. In the circuit diagram, the diode D is connected in series with the output load resistance R L and the arrowhead of the diode is pointing towards the input. So the circuit is said to be a series positive clipper. The vertical line in the diode symbol represents the cathode n-side and the opposite end represents the anode p-side.

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During positive half cycle: During the positive half cycle, terminal A is positive and terminal B is negative. That means the positive terminal A is clippegs to n-side and the negative terminal B is connected to p-side of the diode.

As we already know that if the positive terminal is connected to n-side and the negative terminal is connected to p-side then the diode is said to be reverse biased.

Therefore, the diode D is reverse biased during the positive half cycle. During reverse biased condition, no current flows through the diode. So the positive half cycle is blocked ih removed at the output. During negative half cycle: During the negative half cycle, terminal A is negative and terminal B is positive. That means the negative terminal A is connected to n-side and the positive terminal B is connected to p-side of the diode.

As we already know that if the negative terminal is connected to n-side and the positive terminal is connected to p-side then the diode is said to be forward biased. Therefore, the diode D is forward biased during the negative half cycle. During forward biased condition, electric current flows through the diode. So the negative half cycle is allowed at the output.

Thus, a series of positive half cycles are completely removed at the output. We know that a clipper either clips a portion of half cycle or clips a complete half cycle.

In this case, complete half cycles are removed. Thus, a series positive clipper removes the series of positive half cycles. Sometimes it is desired to remove a small portion of positive or negative half cycles. In such cases, the biased clippers are used. The construction of the series positive clipper with bias is almost similar to the series positive clipper. The only difference is an extra element called battery is used in series positive clipper with bias. That means the positive terminal is connected to n-side and the negative terminal is connected to p-side.

Therefore, the diode is reverse biased by the input supply voltage V i.

However, we are supplying the voltage from another source called battery. As shown in the figure, the positive terminal of the battery is connected to p-side and the negative terminal of the battery is connected to n-side of the diode.

Therefore, the diode is forward biased by the battery voltage V B. That means the diode is reverse biased by the input supply voltage V i and forward biased by the battery voltage V B. So the battery voltage dominates the input supply voltage. Hence, the diode is forward biased by the battery voltage and allows electric current through it. As a result, the signal appears at clipperw output.

Clipper (electronics)

When the input supply voltage V i becomes greater than the battery voltage V Bthe diode D is reverse biased. So no current flows through the diode. Electronicz a znd, input signal does not appear at the output. Thus, the clipping removal of a signal takes place during the positive half cycle only when the input supply voltage becomes greater than the battery voltage.

That means the diode D is forward biased due to the input supply voltage. Furthermore, the battery is also connected in such a way that the positive terminal is connected to p-side and the negative terminal is connected to n-side. So the diode is forward biased by both battery voltage V B and input supply voltage V i.

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So the complete negative half cycle appears at the output. Thus, the series positive clipper with positive bias removes a small portion of positive half cycles. During the positive half cycle, the diode D is reverse biased by both input supply voltage V i and battery voltage V B.

So no signal appears electonics the output during the positive half cycle. Therefore, the complete positive half cycle is removed. During the negative half cycle, the diode is forward biased by the input supply ckippers V i and reverse biased by the battery voltage V B.

However, initially, the battery voltage V B dominates electroniics input supply voltage V i. So the diode remains to be reverse biased until the V i becomes greater than V B.

When the input supply voltage V i becomes greater than the battery voltage V Bthe diode is forward biased by the input eelectronics voltage V i. So the signal appears at the output. In series negative clipper, the negative half cycles of the input AC signal is removed at the output.

The circuit construction of the series negative clipper is shown in the figure. If the diode is arranged in such a way that the arrowhead of the diode points towards the output and the diode is in series with the output load resistance, then the clipper is said to be a series negative clipper.

In simple words, in a series negative clipper, the diode is connected in a direction opposite to an of the series positive clipper. That means the positive terminal A is connected to p-side and the negative terminal B is connected to n-side of the diode.

As we already know that if the positive terminal is connected to p-side and the negative terminal is connected to n-side then the diode is said to be forward biased. Therefore, the diode D is forward biased during the positive half cycle. So the positive half cycle is allowed at the output. Therefore, a series of positive half cycles appears at the output.

Clipper (electronics) – Wikipedia

During the negative half cycle, the terminal A is negative clampees the terminal B is positive. That means the negative terminal A is connected to p-side and the positive terminal B is connected to n-side of the diode. As we already know that if the negative terminal is connected to p-side and the positive terminal is connected to n-side then electroncs diode is said to be reverse biased. Therefore, the diode D is reverse biased during the negative half cycle. So the negative half cycle is completely blocked or removed at the output.

In other words, a series of negative half cycles are removed at the output. Thus, the series negative clipper removes the series of negative half cycles. Sometimes it is desired to remove a small portion of positive or negative half cycles of the input AC signal.

The construction of the series negative clipper with bias is almost similar to the series negative clipper.

Clipper Circuits – Series Clipper, Shunt Clipper, and Dual Clipper

The only difference is an extra element called battery is used in series negative clipper with bias. That means the positive terminal A is connected to p-side and the epectronics terminal B is connected to n-side.

However, we are also supplying the voltage from another source called battery.