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Classification of. Retaining walls. • Gravity wall-Masonry or Plain concrete. • Cantilever retaining wall-RCC. (Inverted T and L). • Counterfort retaining wall- RCC. Types of reinforced concrete retaining walls are cantilever retaining walls and counterfort retaining walls. Functions and parts of these retaining walls. In this type of retaining wall, counterforts (cantilevers) are provided on the earth side between wall and footing to support the wall, which essentially spans as a.

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Four Common Types of Rigid, Monolithic Concrete Retaining Walls

Risk assessment in geotechnical engineering. The pressure mainly wwll upon the type of backfill material and the height of wall. To meet this requirement the resultant of the sum of all vertical forces and the horizontal active pressure should cut the base of the wall within the middle third.

The sliding tendency is resisted by the frictional resistance between the base walk the wall and the soil underneath. The wall is so proportioned that the dead weight of the wall provides required stability against the thrust exerted by the backfill including surcharge if any.

Counterfort retaining wall

The maximum and minimum pressure are given by. Wall retaining partly submerged backfill: The horizontal component of all lateral pressures tends to slide the wall along its base. The lateral pressure imposed by this load does not vary with the height and is uniform. The brackets in this case are known as buttresses and by virtue of their location they are subjected to compressive forces. Sometimes the cantilever wall is constructed in the form of L.



The lateral pressure due to the backfill and surcharge if any tends to overturn the retaining wall about its toe. The pressure thus developed is termed as soil earth pressure. For surcharged walls b may vary between 0. The inclined fill is also known as surcharge.

Wall retaining dry and levelled backfill: By clicking accept or continuing to use the site, you agree to the terms outlined in our Privacy PolicyTerms of Serviceand Dataset License.

Each of these components are designed as a cantilever. Prior to start of structural qall of a retaining wall it is necessary to adopt some tentative dimensions for different components of the wall. The passive pressure developed by the key resists sliding and raises the factor of safety to required limit. Wall with backfill levelled and subjected to uniform surcharge: Let the backfill be moist or dry up to a depth h 1 below the top of wall and let the backfill below this depth i.

Wall retaining submerged counetrfort In this case wall has only two components i. Wall retaining dry and levelled backfill. Monte Carlo method First-order reliability method.

D&S_1: LESSON Cantilever Retaining Walls

References Publications referenced by this paper. Wall retaining submerged backfill. Probability, reliability and statistical methods in engineering de-sign. It may also be defined as a wall provided to maintain ground at two different levels. Skip to search form Skip to main content. Provisions of retaining walls become necessary in the construction of hill roads, embankments, bridge abutment, basement in buildings, water reservoir, in preventive measures against soil erosion, in landscaping etc.


Design of Isolated Column Footing. The backfill may be horizontal i.

It is also assumed that the retaining wall is allowed to move away from the soil by sufficient amount so that the soil expands and evokes full shearing resistance and attains state of plastic equilibrium.

Let the intensity of surcharge load per unit area be w. Counterfort Retaining Walls When the height of the retaining wall to be provided exceeds 6 to 7m, counterfort retaining wall prove to be economical. Based on the method of achieving stability, retaining walls are classified into the following types: Walls of a building Simulation. In this type of wall the base slab as well as the stem of the wall span horizontally as continuous slabs between vertical brackets known as counterforts as shown in Fig.

To avoid failure of the retaining wall it is necessary that the following requirements are satisfied.

If the factor of safety against sliding works out to be less than 1. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental…. Based on these dimensions the wall is checked for stability checked for cojnterfort, sliding and maximum pressure at toe and in case the stability requirements are satisfied, structural design of different wall components is taken up.